Two main types of Coffee Bean
There two main types of coffee bean (เมล็ดกาแฟ) in this world that are usually used: Arabica and robusta. Even though there are many types of coffee, these types are most important from a commercial point of view.
- Arabica Coffee
It is a special variety as it has four chromosome sets, while robusta has two. The taste of Arabica can be different, according to the location in which is grown. Such as similar to berries are Ethiopian coffee, earthy is Indonesia and India, chocolate or citrus is central America. The best conditions to grow Arabica are at low attitudes, such as thousand feet in Hawaii, four thousand feet in Mexico and nine thousand five hundred at the equator.
- Robusta Coffee
This variety is usually called canephora in the past and its tastes are not as good as the Arabica. Robusta has more fruits, a lower cost, grows well at lower altitudes and it is more resistant to diseases. Robusta can be sometimes comparable to Arabica, but quality beans of this type can be hard to find because it is rarely sold alone and usually used as an ingredient for enhancing another product. It has higher caffeine than the one found in Arabica.
Differences between the two coffee species
- Taste, Robusta has its taste that described as burnt tires or rubbery.
- Lipid and sugar content, Arabica contains almost 60% more lipids and almost twice the concentration of sugar than Robusta.
- Price, Robusta is about half the price of Arabica green beans on the commodity market.
- Robusta is easier to tend to on the farm, the extra caffeine is a chemical defense for the coffee seed as the quantity in the Robusta is toxic to bugs.
- The shape, Robusta beans are much more circular, whilst Arabica is more oval.
- Plant High, Arabica can grow between 2,5-4,5 meters compared to the 4,5-6 meters height of robusta.
- Cultivation, Arabica has production about 75% in the world and about 25% being Robusta. Brazil is the most Arabica producer and Vietnam produces the most Robusta.